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林婵余, 陈静波, 赵晓苗. 高雄激素血症检测指标与子痫前期的遗传因果性研究[J]. koko体育app 学报(医学版), 2024, 55(3): 566-573. DOI:
引用本文: 林婵余, 陈静波, 赵晓苗. 高雄激素血症检测指标与子痫前期的遗传因果性研究[J]. koko体育app 学报(医学版), 2024, 55(3): 566-573. DOI:
LIN Chanyu, CHEN Jingbo, ZHAO Xiaomiao. Genetic Causation Analysis of Hyperandrogenemia Testing Indicators and Preeclampsia[J]. Journal of Sichuan University (Medical Sciences), 2024, 55(3): 566-573. DOI:
Citation: LIN Chanyu, CHEN Jingbo, ZHAO Xiaomiao. Genetic Causation Analysis of Hyperandrogenemia Testing Indicators and Preeclampsia[J]. Journal of Sichuan University (Medicꩲal Sciences), 2024, 55(3): 566-573. DOI:

高雄激素血症检测指标与子痫前期的遗传因果性研究

Genetic Causation Analysis of Hyperandrogenemia Testing Indicators and Preeclampsia

  • 摘要:
    目的 运用双样本孟德尔随机化(two sample Mendelian randomization, 2SMR)方法,揭示高雄激素血症的临床检测指标与子痫前期的因果关联。
    方法 利用来自英国生物银行队列的全基因组关联研究(genome-wide association study, GWAS)数据,分析雄激素指数的相关单核苷酸多态性(single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP)位点〔包括总睾酮(total testosterone, TT)、生物可利用睾酮(bioavailable testosterone, BIOT)和性激素结合球蛋白(sex hormone binding globulin, SHBG)〕。同时,使用芬兰数据库中关于子痫前期和原发性高血压并发子痫前期的GWAS数据统计SNP位点。采用5种遗传因果性分析方法(包括随机效应逆方差加权法等)推测因果关系,并通过敏感性分析评估异质性和位点多效性。
    结果 根据遗传变异工具变量筛选标准,筛选出与雄激素指标TT、BIOT、SHBG具有统计学显著相关的186、127、262个SNP位点作为遗传工具变量。孟德尔随机化(Mendelian randomization, MR)分析未发现TT、BIOT、SHBG水平与子痫前期及原发性高血压并发子痫前期发病风险之间存在因果关系。其中,SHBG在与子痫前期MR分析中显示异质性(Cochran's Q检验,P=0.01),BIOT在与原发性高血压并发子痫前期MR分析中显示位点多效性,其他工具变量未显示显著异质性或多效性。
    结论 MR分析结果表明,目前的遗传预测证据不支持TT、BIOT、SHBG水平与子痫前期以及原发性高血压并发子痫前期之间存在因果关系。
     
    Abstract:
    Objective Some epidemiological studies have shown that pregnant women who develop preeclampsia (PE) have elevated levels of testosterone in their maternal plasma compared to women with normal blood pressure during pregnancy, revealing a potential association between hyperandrogenism in women and PE. To explore the causal relationship between hyperandrogenism and PE, this study selected total testosterone (TT), bioavailable testosterone (BIOT), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) as exposure factors and PE and chronic hypertension with superimposed PE as disease outcomes. Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were used to genetically dissect the causal relationships between the three exposure factors (TT, BIOT, and SHBG) and the outcomes of PE and chronic hypertension with superimposed PE.
    Methods Two independent genome-wide association study (GWAS) databases were used for the two-sample MR analysis. In the GWAS data of female participants from the UK Biobank cohort, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with TT, BIOT, and SHBG were analyzed, involving 230454, 188507, and 188908 samples, respectively. GWAS data on PE and chronic hypertension with superimposed PE from the Finnish database were used to calculate SNP, involving 3556 PE cases and 114735 controls, as well as 38 cases of chronic hypertension with superimposed PE and 114735 controls. To meet the assumptions of instrumental relevance and independence in MR analysis, SNPs associated with exposure were identified at the genome-wide level (P<5.0×10−8), and those in linkage disequilibrium interference were excluded based on clustering thresholds of R2<0.001 and an allele distance greater than 10000 kb. Known confounding factors, including previous PE, chronic kidney disease, chronic hypertension, diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, or antiphospholipid syndrome, were also identified and the relevant SNPs were removed. Finally, we extracted the outcome data based on the exposure-related SNPs in the outcome GWAS, integrating exposure and outcome data, and removing palindromic sequences. Five genetic causal analysis methods, including inverse variance-weighted method (IVW), MR-Egger regression, weighted median method, simple mode method, and weighted mode method, were used to infer causal relationships. In the IVW, it was assumed that the selected SNPs satisfied the three assumptions and provided the most ideal estimate of the effect. IVW was consequently used as the primary analysis method in this study. Considering the potential heterogeneity among the instrumental variables, random-effects IVW was used for MR analysis. The results were interpreted using odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) to explain the impact of exposure factors on PE and chronic hypertension with superimposed PE. If the CI did not include 1 and had a P value less than 0.05, the difference was considered statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess heterogeneity and pleiotropy. Heterogeneity was examined using Cochran's Q test, and pleiotropy was assessed using MR-Egger intercept analysis. Additionally, leave-one-out analysis was conducted to examine whether individual SNPs were driving the causal associations. To further validate the findings, MR analyses were performed using the same methods and outcome variables, but with different exposure factors, including waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, with MR results for WHRadjBMI and PE serving as the positive controls and MR results for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and PE as the negative controls.
    Results According to the criteria for selecting genetic instrumental variables, 186, 127, and 262 SNPs were identified as genetic instrumental variables significantly associated with testosterone indicators TT, BIOT, and SHBG. MR analysis did not find a causal relationship between the TT, BIOT, and SHBG levels and the risk of developing PE and chronic hypertension with superimposed PE. The IVW method predicted that genetically predicted TT (OR 95% CI=1.018 0.897-1.156, P=0.78), BIOT (OR 95% CI=1.11 0.874-1.408, P=0.392), and SHBG (OR 95% CI=0.855 0.659-1.109, P=0.239) were not associated with PE. Similarly, genetically predicted TT (OR 95% CI=1.222 0.548-2.722, P=0.624), BIOT (OR 95% CI=1.066 0.242-4.695, P=0.933), and SHBG (OR 95% CI=0.529 0.119-2.343, P=0.402) were not significantly associated with chronic hypertension with superimposed PE. Additionally, MR analysis using the MR-Egger method, weighted median method, simple mode method, and weighted mode method yielded consistent results, indicating no significant causal relationship between elevated testosterone levels and PE or chronic hypertension with superimposed PE. Heterogeneity was observed for SHBG in the analysis with PE (Cochran's Q test, P=0.01), and pleiotropy was detected for BIOT in the analysis with PE (MR-Egger intercept analysis, P=0.014), suggesting that the instrumental variables did not affect PE through BIOT. Other instrumental variables did not show significant heterogeneity or pleiotropy. Leave-one-out analysis confirmed that the results of the MR analysis were not driven by individual instrumental variables. Consistent with previous MR studies, the results of the control MR analyses using WHRadjBMI and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels supported the accuracy of the MR analysis approach and the methods used in this study.
    Conclusion The MR analysis results suggest that current genetic evidence does not support a causal relationship between TT, BIOT, and SHBG levels and the development of PE and chronic hypertension with superimposed PE. This study suggests that elevated testosterone may be a risk factor for PE but not a direct cause.
     

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