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高睿, 秦朗. 产科抗磷脂综合征的诊治原则与热点问题述评[J]. koko体育app 学报(医学版), 2024, 55(3): 513-520. DOI:
引用本文: 高睿, 秦朗. 产科抗磷脂综合征的诊治原则与热点问题述评[J]. koko体育app 学报(医学版), 2024, 55(3): 513-520. DOI:
GAO Rui, QIN Lang. Obstetric Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Insights on the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Hot Issues[J]. Journal of Sichuan University (Medical Sciences), 2024, 55(3): 513-520. DOI:
Citation: GAO Rui, QIN Lang. Obstetric Antiphospholipid Syndroꦜme: Insights on the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Hot Issues[J]. Journal of Sichuan University (Medical Sciences), 2024, 55(3): 513-520. DOI:

产科抗磷脂综合征的诊治原则与热点问题述评

Obstetric Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Insights on the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Hot Issues

  • 摘要: 产科抗磷脂综合征(obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome, OAPS)是一种与多种病理妊娠事件相关的自身免疫疾病,严重威胁我国育龄期女性生育健康。OAPS的具体发病机制尚不明确,可能与局部微血栓形成及炎症反应有关,全孕期低分子肝素联合阿司匹林治疗是OAPS的标准治疗方案。及时、准确地诊断OAPS是规范化治疗的基础,然而,全世界对OAPS的诊断标准尚未形成共识,这导致诊治不规范的现象普遍存在。本文旨在总结OAPS的诊治原则,并对非标准OAPS的概念、抗磷脂抗体(antiphospholipid antibody, aPL)的检测方法选择、非标准aPL解读与应用、基于aPL的风险分层等热点问题进行述评,为该病的临床管理提供借鉴与参考。  
    Abstract: Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (OAPS) is an autoimmune disorder associated with various pathological pregnancies, such as recurrent miscarriage, stillbirth, severe pre-eclampsia and severe placental insufficiency. The persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) is the most important laboratory characteristic of OAPS. OAPS severely affects the reproductive health of women of childbearing age in China. Reports indicate that approximately 9.6% stillbirths, 11.5% severe pre-eclampsia, and 54% recurrent miscarriages are associated with OAPS or aPLs. However, the pathogenesis of OAPS remains unclear. Previously, thrombosis at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI) was considered the main mechanism of OAPS-related pathological pregnancies. Consequently, the use of low molecular weight heparin and aspirin throughout pregnancy was recommended to improve outcomes in OAPS patient. In recent years, many studies have found that thrombosis in MFI is uncommon, but various inflammatory factors are significantly increased in the MFI of OAPS patients. Based on these findings, some clinicians have started using anti-inflammatory treatments for OAPS, which have preliminarily improved the pregnancy outcomes. Nevertheless, there is no consensus on these second-line treatments of OAPS. Another troubling issue is the clinical diagnosis of OAPS. Similar to other autoimmune diseases, there are only classification criteria for OAPS, and clinical diagnosis of OAPS depends on the clinicians' experience. The present classification criteria of OAPS were established for clinical and basic research purposes, not for patient clinical management. In clinical practice, many patients with both positive aPLs and pathological pregnancy histories do not meet the strict OAPS criteria. This has led to widespread issues of incorrect diagnosis and treatment. Timely and accurate diagnosis of OAPS is crucial for effective treatment. In this article, we reviewed the epidemiological research progress on OAPS and summarized its classification principles, including: 1) the persistent presence of aPLs in circulation; 2) manifestations of OAPS, excluding other possible causes. For the first point, accurate assessment of aPLs is crucial; for the latter, previous studies regarded only placenta-related pregnancy complications as characteristic manifestations of OAPS. However, recent studies have indicated that adverse pregnancy outcomes related to trophoblast damage, such as recurrent miscarriage and stillbirth, also need to be considered in OAPS. We also discussed several key issues in the diagnosis and treatment of OAPS. First, we addressed the definition of non-standard OAPS and offered our opinion on defining non-standard OAPS within the framework of the 2023 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) APS criteria. Then, we discussed the advantages and disadvantages of different aPL testing methods, emphasizing that harmonizing results across platforms and establishing specific reference values are keys to resolving controversies in aPL testing results. We also introduced the application of non-criteria aPLs, especially anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibody (aPS/PT) and anti-β2 glycoprotein Ⅰ domain Ⅰ antibody (aβ2GPⅠDⅠ). Additionally, we discussed aPL-based OAPS risk classification strategies. Finally, we proposed potential treatment methods for refractory OAPS. The goal is to provide a reference for the clinical management of OAPS.  

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